select one important health insurance, managed care, or healthcare reform challenge (or problem to solve) and analyze it in greater depth in a written format.
October 14, 2021
How do carbon and oxygen cycle through an ecosystem?
October 14, 2021

Which of the following contains the greatest number of carcinogens?
A) a thick vanilla milkshake
B) a Twinkie snack
C) chewing tobacco
D) tap water from most cities in the United States
52) You examine an ice core sample from 10,000 years ago when global temperatures were
unusually high. Based upon past studies and insights from current GHG levels, we expect that
atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide:
A) and methane were unusually low
B) and methane were unusually high
C) were high but methane levels were low
D) were low but methane levels were high
53) In his movie, An Inconvenient Truth, Al Gore warns of increasing levels of carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere which suggest that:
A) methane levels will soon rise, destroying the ozone layer
B) global temperatures will also continue to rise
C) the oceans of the world are losing carbon dioxide
D) clouds are thinning and global precipitation is declining
54) Evidence from proxies indicate eight major oscillations in global temperatures over the past
800,000 years, most likely the result of:
A) rising and falling sea levels that greatly impact photosynthetic activity
B) variations in solar activity that produce different levels of radiation
C) Milankovitch cycles of periodic variations in Earth’s orbits around the sun
D) lunar cycles in which the moon orbits at different distances from the Earth
55) In general, temperatures along an ocean coastline vary less than temperatures 100 miles
inland. This moderation of temperatures along coastlines is because:
A) as the oceans evaporate it cools off the coastlines
B) the sun shines more intensely away from the ocean coastlines
C) ocean temperatures change more quickly than air temperatures
D) ocean temperatures do not change as quickly as air temperatures
56) In our world, something with the greatest heat capacity is able to:
A) evaporate the most water from its surface
B) retain its heat the longest
C) insulate the best
D) reflect the greatest amount of sunshine
57) If the sun suddenly stopped shining, where would be the best outdoor location to stay warm
with the least change in ambient temperature?
A) Atlanta, Georgia
B) on a beach in Hawaii
C) Kansas City, Kansas
D) the center of Brazil
58) Which one of the following principles of smart-growth will most likely result in less commuting
for all residents?
A) have states purchase open spaces
B) set physical boundaries on urban sprawl
C) build new homes and stores on existing abandoned or brownfield urban properties
D) promote the integration of homes, stores, light industry, and professional offices
59) According to the U.S. Sprawlometer, the most sprawling and congested area is:
A) New York
B) Los Angeles
C) Greensboro, NC
D) Riverside, CA
60) The Obama administration has moved to combat urban sprawl through the:
A) Clean Air Act
B) Clean Water Act
C) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
61) Over the past 60 years, as people moved from U.S. cities to suburbs, the people that were left
behind in the cities were primarily:
A) older, poor people representing ethnic minorities
B) younger, wealthy people representing ethnic minorities
C) older and wealthy Caucasians
D) younger Caucasians
62) In a large city experiencing urban blight, we would be surprised to find:
A) a declining tax base
B) depreciating real estate
C) improving schools
D) increasing crime
63) The main financial problems for a city experiencing urban blight result from:
A) a declining tax base
B) increasing industrial growth
C) the need to build new schools
D) increasing use of public transportation
64) Buses and cars using fuel cells are:
A) not yet possible because the technology to safely store hydrogen is still not resolved
B) not yet available because the fuel cell generates unsafe levels of heat
C) still inefficient, largely because the fuel cells are large and heavy
D) already in use and ready for commercial production
65) Which one of the following produces the least air pollution?
A) an automobile burning hydrogen as a fuel
B) an automobile running on a hydrogen fuel cell
C) a Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle
D) a car running on natural gas
66) Automobiles with fuel cells can be more flexibly designed because they:
A) do not have wheels
B) have to be so large that there is extra room for passengers and accessories
C) do not have an engine fuel combustion compartment
D) do not have to be aerodynamically constructed to get better fuel mileage
67) A hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell uses:
A) hydrogen and water and generates electricity and oxygen
B) hydrogen and oxygen and generates electricity and water
C) carbon dioxide and water and generates electricity and hydrogen
D) hydrogen and water and generates electricity, oxygen, and carbon dioxide
68) The most promising immediate alternative to gasoline fueled vehicles in a time of global
climate change and increasing oil imports is powering vehicles using:
A) solar power
B) hydrogen as a fuel source
C) fuel cells using hydrogen
D) plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
69) Enhanced geothermal systems:
A) generate electricity using the heat of the earth to make steam
B) are routinely used in China to power automobiles
C) use the energy of the sun to boil water and generate electricity
D) use gravity to propel large turbines, which generate electricity
A home located next to a 5-acre pond (30 feet deep in the center) uses the steady temperature of the deep pond water for heat exchange. A closed system of water is piped from the home under­ground to deep regions of the pond and then back to the home. Inside the home, a heat exchange system extracts heat in the winter and removes heat from the home in the summer. This home relies completely on electricity, generated by burning coal at a distant power plant.
70) This home system illustrates the use of:
A) ecothermal energy
B) biomass fuels
C) geothermal energy
D) hydroelectric energy
71) Compared to heating and cooling this home using a standard heat pump system, this home’s
heating and cooling system will:
A) probably keep the pond from freezing over in the winter
B) probably cause ice to form on the pond in the early summer and fall
C) reduce the carbon footprint of the homeowners
D) not work if ice forms on the top of the pond
72) Harnessing the energy of tides to generate electricity is different than the force moving the
water in a hydroelectric power station at a dam because:
A) tidal energy uses turbines and a dam uses generators
B) tidal energy ultimately relies on moon’s gravity and hydroelectric power ultimately relies on the energy from the sun
C) tidal energy ultimately relies on ocean currents and hydroelectric power ultimately relies on the energy from the sun
D) tidal energy ultimately relies on the wind and hydroelectric power ultimately relies on the energy of rain
73) A tidal barrage would be used to generate electricity:
A) at the mouth of a bay
B) at the bottom of a large lake
C) near the tip of an ocean peninsula
D) in the open ocean
74) One of the least promising non-fossil fuel energy sources uses:
A) wind power
B) biomass energy
C) geothermal energy
D) thermal-energy conversion in the oceans
75) The future global energy demands may be met by developing sustainable energy resources and
also, most easily, by:
A) dramatically increasing oil and natural gas exploration
B) increasing our use of the abundant natural gas and coal resources
C) improving energy conservation and efficiency of current technology
D) limiting the use of energy in developing countries
76) In the past decade, the United States government has:
A) discouraged the use of alternate energy resources and promoted the use of fossil fuels
B) promoted but not invested in the development and use of sustainable energy resources
C) promoted and invested heavily through the Recovery Act of 2009 in the development
and use of sustainable energy resources
D) required the use of sustainable energy resources for more than 95% of our energy
demands by the year 2020
77) Responsible stewardship in the coming decades will require global energy policies that
A) both sustainability and technological efficiency
B) productivity and economic prosperity in developing nations
C) the development of abundant and inexpensive fossil fuels such as shale gas
D) additional exploration of shale oil and natural gas resources
78) Energy policies that promote the use of renewable-energy resources:
A) and oil and gas exploration are the most promising ways to address global climate
B) and efficiency will automatically reduce the generation of greenhouse gases
C) increase the demand for fossil fuels and require the importation of oil to most
D) hurt the poorest families and discourage economic growth in developing countries
79) If some current trends and energy strategies continue and succeed over the next few decades,
in fifty years you might be able to say that you witnessed the shift from:
A) an energy-consuming economy to an energy-producing economy
B) a wind-driven economy to a solar economy
C) an unsustainable fossil-fuel-driven economy to a sustainable hydrogen economy
D) a renewable energy- driven economy to a clean-burning natural gas economy.
80) Which one of the following vehicles would generate the greatest amount of carbon tax?
A) a large hybrid-electric SUV that gets 31 miles per gallon

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